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About prostate cancer

What is the prostate?

The prostate is a small organ in men which sits below the bladder, and surrounds a tube called the urethra which carries urine from the bladder to the penis. Its main function is to produce fluid found in semen.

Illustrated diagram showing the position of the prostate gland

Symptoms of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer does not usually cause symptoms until the cancer has grown large enough to put pressure on the urethra.

Symptoms can include:

  • Having to wee more often than usual, often at night
  • Having to rush to the toilet to wee
  • Difficulty or straining when trying to wee
  • Having a weak flow
  • A sense of not being able to completely empty your bladder
  • Blood in wee or semen

However, there are many possible causes for some of these symptoms. So having these symptoms does not mean you definitely have prostate cancer.

For example, in many men their prostates get larger as they get older, because of a non-cancerous condition called ‘benign prostate enlargement' (or ‘benign prostatic hyperplasia’). This can cause many of the symptoms listed above.

If you notice any symptoms and are worried, please contact your GP. These symptoms could be a sign of something other than cancer but it is important to speak to your doctor so they can investigate and refer you for further tests if needed. When cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, it can usually be treated more successfully.

Reference: NHS Prostate Cancer

How many men get prostate cancer in Yorkshire?

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men (1).

In 2018, the number of prostate cancers being diagnosed in Yorkshire peaked, increasing by 26% from the previous year to 4,700. This is possibly because of increased awareness of the condition following announcements from actor Stephen Fry and broadcaster Bill Turnbull of their own prostate cancer diagnoses (which has become known as a ‘Fry and Turnbull effect’).

Recent figures show that this number has fallen since then, in 2019 around 4,332 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and in 2020 this fell to 3,360 due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

We estimate that there could be more than 1,000 prostate cancers that went undiagnosed in 2020 due to reduction in the number of men going to their GP with symptoms.

Clinician pointing to image of patient scan

Who is at risk of developing prostate cancer?

1 in 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point in their lives.

The main factor that influences risk of prostate cancer is age – almost all cases are diagnosed in the over-50s.

In Yorkshire, 7 in 10 men diagnosed with prostate cancer are between the ages of 60-79. Only 1 in 10 men are below the age of 60.

Family history of cancer may also be important. Having a brother or father who developed prostate cancer before the age of 60 can be an indication that you have an increased risk of developing it. Research also suggests having a close female relative who developed breast cancer may also increase your risk.

Men with genetic mutations such as BRCA2 and Lynch syndrome have a significantly higher risk of prostate cancer. (2,3)

Ethnicity also appears to play a role in prostate cancer risk. Black men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, compared to White or Asian men, in fact 1 in 4 Black men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime.

Contrary to popular belief, having benign prostate enlargement does not mean that you’re more likely to develop prostate cancer.

Why is it important we find prostate cancer early?

Around 950 men die from prostate cancer in Yorkshire each year (4).

Men in Yorkshire are more likely to be diagnosed at a late stage than men in England as a whole (53% in Yorkshire compared to 47% in England, of those diagnosed with a known stage). (5)

The positive news is that when prostate cancers are found early before it has had a chance to grow and spread the likelihood of surviving prostate cancer is high. When cancer is found early, it can usually be treated more successfully. An early diagnosis also means that in many cases, treatments that cause long term side effects can be avoided.

Overall, 9 in 10 men diagnosed with prostate cancer in England survive for five years or more (6). However, like any cancer, the later that prostate cancer is diagnosed the more difficult it can be to treat.

So it’s really important to contact your GP as soon as possible if you have any of the symptoms listed. The symptoms might not be caused by prostate cancer, but if they are, being diagnosed early could save your life.

What will happen if I go to the doctor with symptoms?

If your GP suspects your symptoms could be caused by prostate cancer, there are a few different tests that you could be offered. Your GP should discuss the pros and cons of each test with you.

Firstly, you’ll likely have blood taken to look for something called prostate-specific antigen (PSA). High levels of PSA in the blood can sometimes indicate prostate cancer. However, there are many reasons why you might have high PSA levels, and in fact most men with high PSA will not have prostate cancer.

The GP could also examine your prostate with a rectal examination, by inserting a finger into your bottom to feel if your prostate is swollen. This examination does not last long at all and can be a useful test to determine whether your prostate is a normal size and hardness for your age. However, it is not compulsory that you have this test , and you can still have other diagnostic tests without having a rectal examination.

You may also be asked to give a urine sample, to see if there is an infection which could provide another explanation of the symptoms you’re having.

Depending on the results of these tests, and risk factors such as your age, ethnicity and previous family history, your GP may refer you to a hospital to have an MRI scan of your prostate. If this shows a problem, you might also have a biopsy, where a small sample of your prostate is taken with a needle to look for cancerous changes.

If you, or a man in your life, have any unusual symptoms, it’s vital you contact your GP as soon as possible. If the symptoms do turn out to be caused by prostate cancer, then finding it early gives the best possible chances of survival.


1. CancerData, Cancer Incidence 2020

2. ii Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Aug 4;91(15):1310-6. doi: 10.1093/jnci/91.15.1310. PMID: 10433620.

3. Haraldsdottir S, Hampel H, Wei L, Wu C, Frankel W, Bekaii-Saab T, de la Chapelle A, Goldberg RM. Prostate cancer incidence in males with Lynch syndrome. Genet Med. 2014 Jul;16(7):553-7. doi: 10.1038/gim.2013.193. Epub 2014 Jan 16. PMID: 24434690; PMCID: PMC4289599

4. CancerData, Cancer Mortality, 2020

5. CancerData, Staging data in England, 2019

6. NHS Digital, Cancer survival in England, cancers diagnosed in 2016 to 2020 and followed up to 2021